DNA analysis


In recent years DNA analysis has become a popular tool with genealogists.  The scientific details are far beyond the scope of this document.  Yet it is necessary to understand the concept of DNA in order to see the potential value and the usefulness to genealogists

DNA is a molecule that contains instructions to your body.  Think of a mile-long ladder where each rung is an instruction. Many instructions are common to all people, and some are different. Your size, your sex, the color of your hair are determined by the DNA molecule.  Each child inherits DNA from both parents.  And this is different than any other person.  The similarities in the molecule reveal  your parents, their parents, grandparents, and further back. Similarly, each ancestor has contributed to your DNA.

Many technical articles about DNA are available.  The complexity of the molecule is illustrated below.  The internet will explain this in whatever detail you want/

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Half of your DNA comes from each parent, on quarter from each grandparent, and one eighth from each grandparent.   You and your cousin have a common grandparent and the number of common DNA elements reveal this relationships

There are several private companies that will test your DNA and provide a list of individuals who share your DNA.  We have used this to find several relatives starting with second cousins.  Second cousins are descendent from the same grandfather.  50% of your DNA comes from each parent, 25% from each grandparent, and 12% from each great grandparent.

The DNA might identify your susceptibility to physical or mental problems.  While that information may be useful to you. This information may also influence your suitability for certain careers.   This introduces legal issues so DNA analysis must be protected.

I have paid two companies for a DNA analysis.  A major function of the DNA analysis iOS identification of individuals that are related.  Second function is to identify physical or mental features that are common in your DNA related group.For illustration, some of that information is copied here.  This is a part that identifies features common to others in my DNA category (Haplogroup)



Your Reports Summary

This is an overview of your 23andMe reports. It provides brief descriptions of your results but does not provide detailed information that may be important for understanding your results. 23andMe reports do not include all possible variants or account for other factors related to these conditions and traits.

Log into your 23andMe account for more details about each of your results. If you have concerns about your results, talk to a healthcare professional.

Genetic Health Risk Reports 4 highlighted reports of 9 reports available

Learn whether you have specific genetic variants that can influence your risk for certain health conditions. Consider talking to a healthcare professional if you have a personal or family history of one of these conditions or have concerns about your results.

Our reports do not include all possible genetic variants that could affect these conditions. Other factors can also affect your risk of developing these conditions, including lifestyle, environment, and family history.

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Variant detected, not likely at increased risk

  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Variant detected, not likely at risk

  • Celiac Disease

    Slightly increased risk

  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE‑Related)

    Variant detected, not likely at increased risk

  • BRCA1/BRCA2 (Selected Variants)

    Variants not detected

  • Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Variant not detected

  • Parkinson’s Disease

    Variants not detected

  • G6PD Deficiency

    Variant not detected

  • Hereditary Thrombophilia

    Variants not detected

Carrier Status Reports 0 highlighted reports of 44 reports available

Learn whether you have specific genetic variants that may not affect your health, but could affect your children’s health.Consider talking to a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any concerns about your results.

If you see “Variant not detected” for a Carrier Status report, it means you’re not a carrier of the tested variant(s). Keep in mind that while our Carrier Status reports cover many variants, they don’t include all possible variants associated with each condition. So it’s still possible to be a carrier of a variant not included in our test.


    Variant not detected

  • Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum with Peripheral Neuropathy

    Variant not detected

  • Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Variant not detected

  • Beta Thalassemia and Related Hemoglobinopathies

    Variant not detected

  • Bloom Syndrome

    Variant not detected

  • Canavan Disease

    Variant not detected

  • Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a (PMM2-CDG)

    Variant not detected

  • Cystic Fibrosis

    Variant not detected

  • D-Bifunctional Protein Deficiency

    Variant not detected

  • Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Variant not detected

  • Familial Dysautonomia

    Variant not detected

  • Familial Hyperinsulinism (ABCC8-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Variant not detected

  • Fanconi Anemia Group C

    Variant not detected

  • GRACILE Syndrome

    Variant not detected

  • Gaucher Disease Type 1

    Variant not detected

  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    Variant not detected

  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ib

    Variant not detected

  • Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Variant not detected

  • Herlitz Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (LAMB3-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Leigh Syndrome, French Canadian Type

    Variant not detected

  • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2D

    Variant not detected

  • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E

    Variant not detected

  • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I

    Variant not detected

  • MCAD Deficiency

    Variant not detected

  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B

    Variant not detected

  • Mucolipidosis Type IV

    Variant not detected

  • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN5-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (PPT1-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Niemann-Pick Disease Type A

    Variant not detected

  • Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

    Variant not detected

  • Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss and Deafness, DFNB1 (GJB2-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Pendred Syndrome and DFNB4 Hearing Loss (SLC26A4-Related)

    Variant not detected

  • Phenylketonuria and Related Disorders

    Variant not detected

  • Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2

    Variant not detected

  • Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1

    Variant not detected

  • Salla Disease

    Variant not detected

  • Sickle Cell Anemia

    Variant not detected

  • Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome

    Variant not detected

  • Tay-Sachs Disease

    Variant not detected

  • Tyrosinemia Type I

    Variant not detected

  • Usher Syndrome Type 1F

    Variant not detected

  • Usher Syndrome Type 3A

    Variant not detected

  • Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum (PEX1-Related)

    Variant not detected

Wellness Reports 2 highlighted reports of 8 reports available

Find out how your DNA may affect your body’s response to diet, exercise, and sleep. Consider talking to a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any concerns about your results.

  • Alcohol Flush Reaction

    Unlikely to flush

  • Caffeine Consumption

    Likely to consume more

  • Deep Sleep

    More likely to be a deep sleeper

  • Genetic Weight

    Predisposed to weigh about average

  • Lactose Intolerance

    Likely tolerant

  • Muscle Composition

    Common in elite power athletes

  • Saturated Fat and Weight

    Likely similar weight

  • Sleep Movement

    Likely more than average movement

Ancestry Reports 1 highlighted report of 5 reports available

Discover the story of your ancient ancestors, your origins, and your ancestral background.

  • Ancestry Composition
    • European


      • Scandinavian


      • British & Irish


      • French & German


      • Broadly Northwestern European


      • Broadly European


    • Sub-Saharan African


      • Broadly Sub-Saharan African


    • East Asian & Native American

      Less than 0.1%

      • Broadly East Asian

        Less than 0.1%

  • Maternal Haplogroup


  • Neanderthal Ancestry

    Fewer Neanderthal variants than 82% of customers

  • Paternal Haplogroup


  • Your DNA Family

    1033 DNA Relatives

Traits Reports 0 highlighted reports of 30 reports available

Explore the genetics behind your appearance and senses.

  • Ability to Match Musical Pitch

    Less likely to be able to match a musical pitch

  • Asparagus Odor Detection

    Likely can smell

  • Back Hair

    Likely little upper back hair

  • Bald Spot

    Likely bald spot

  • Bitter Taste

    Likely can taste

  • Cheek Dimples

    Likely no dimples

  • Cilantro Taste Aversion

    Slightly higher odds of disliking cilantro

  • Cleft Chin

    Likely no cleft chin

  • Earlobe Type

    Likely detached earlobes

  • Early Hair Loss

    Likely hair loss

  • Earwax Type

    Likely wet earwax

  • Eye Color

    Likely brown or hazel eyes

  • Fear of Heights

    Less likely than average to be afraid of heights

  • Finger Length Ratio

    Likely ring finger longer

  • Freckles

    Likely little freckling

  • Hair Photobleaching

    Less likely to experience hair photobleaching

  • Hair Texture

    Likely straight or wavy

  • Hair Thickness

    Less likely to have thick hair

  • Light or Dark Hair

    Likely light

  • Misophonia

    Average odds of hating chewing sounds

  • Mosquito Bite Frequency

    Likely bitten less often than others

  • Newborn Hair

    Likely little baby hair

  • Photic Sneeze Reflex

    Likely no photic sneeze reflex

  • Red Hair

    Likely no red hair

  • Skin Pigmentation

    Likely lighter skin

  • Sweet vs. Salty

    Likely prefers salty

  • Toe Length Ratio

    Likely big toe longer

  • Unibrow

    Likely no unibrow

  • Wake-Up Time

    Likely to wake up around 7:05 am

  • Widow’s Peak

    Likely no widow’s peak

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